Modernism and Cultural Conflict, 1880-1922
University of Kansas, ; M. University of Virginia, has published extensively on turn-of-the-twentieth-century British literature and culture. Her first book, New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism Rutgers, , on representations of the "New Woman" in British fiction and the popular press, considered how and why these immensely popular and controversial narratives were moved to the margins of the historical record as modernism came to be seen as the aesthetic of modernity.
Her second book, Modernism and Cultural Conflict: Cambridge, ; reprinted in paper, focused more broadly on a variety of changes in the public sphere related to the "rise" of literary modernism: e. Professor Ardis' most recent work is on the "mediamorphosis" Roger Fidler's phrasing of print at the turn of the twentieth century.
Professor Ardis is currently developing a book, tentatively entitled Before the Great Divides: Magazines, Modernisms, Modernities , about the transformations of print media and the literary marketplace at the turn of the twentieth century in relation to both the professionalization of "English studies" as an academic discipline and re-conceptualizations of the public sphere undertaken by the historical avant-garde and by radical social movements in the UK and the US women's suffrage, the New Negro Movement, socialism as the latter embedded the arts in larger projects of socio-economic "uplift.
Christine B. Chin's research and teaching interests are in the political economy of transnational migration, Southeast Asian studies and intercultural relations. Her most recent book, Cruising in the Global Economy: Profits, Pleasure and Work at Sea , examines the relationship between flag states, cruise lines, port communities, middle class consumers and foreign migrant workers in the global expansion of cruise tourism.
Her current research project focuses on the relationship between transnational migrant labour and communities in global cities. Chin is the recipient of various teaching awards at the school and university levels: the most recent is American University's Outstanding Teaching in a Full-Time Appointment Award.
Professor Chin's research and teaching interests are in the political economy of transnational migration, Southeast Asian studies and intercultural relations.
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He is the author of numerous works in U. Coclanis was born in Chicago and took his Ph. He works in the fields of American, international, and Southeast Asian economic history, and has published widely in these fields. Most recently, my research has focused on Trauma Studies and Age Studies. Over the years, I have published eight monographs, edited or co-edited fifteen anthologies, and published more than forty articles in refereed journals or anthologies.
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My books have been translated into seven languages, and I have lectured all over the world. Du kanske gillar. The Testaments Margaret Atwood Inbunden. Ladda ned. Spara som favorit. Skickas inom vardagar. The nonctional discourse of ethnography offers Potter the protection of professionalism; it provides her with an opportunity, as she herself notes in her diary, to carve out a career of disinterested re- search. The mode of discourse Potter chose as an alterna- tive to the novel in the os is, then, a hybrid genre: the product of a marriage, so to speak, between the male discourse of political econ- omy and the female form of the novel.
Modernism and Cultural Conflict, 1880-1922
The narrative strategies of the novelist inform the scientic discourse of the ethnographer; but they are subsumed within a new rhetorical framework. Thus, Potters narrative produces not a readers sympathetic identicationwitha character but an objective, dispassionate, authoritative account of sweated labor in the tailoring industry. What Potter refers to in several other essays she wrote during this period as a more vivid realisation of the problem yields true charity: charity which is to be distinguished from either a Mrs.
Gaskells concern for the fallen Ruth or a Salvation Army workers con- descension towards her settlement house tenants; charity which points to the need for socialistic legislation. On March. That is what I am painfully conscious of when I meet really clever men. My work, if it can be dignied by that name, is so amateurish and yet I dont know that I have a right to pretend to anything better and more businesslike. All my duties lie in the practical direction; why should I, wretched little frog, try and puff myself up into a professional?
But remarks like this should not be taken as evidence of her unselfconscious acceptance of Beatrice Webb and the serious artist. Rather, they evidence Potters extreme self-consciousness about her negotiations with her own cul- ture, not merely the foreign cultures of Londons East End.
Ann L Ardis
In Writing Culture, James Clifford describes the current trend in ethnography to- ward a specication of discourses. But if this passage suggests that she felt the need to purge sub- jectivity which, for her, represents the mark of gender from her public voice, it also shows her doing this quite self-consciously.
In other words, Potter already has the kind of distance from the conventions of participant-observer ethnography Clifford maintains we have only acquired recently. She assumes the rhetorical stance of objectivity in her ethnographic writ- ing because that is the strategy of authority her readers value. But she is not seduced by the ideal of scientic objectivity.
Revues modernistes, revues engagées
Rather, she puffs [her]self up into a professional. She enacts for her readers benet the interplay of voices, of positional utterances, she sustains throughout her life. They hear only the condent, male voice of the Fabian Socialist, not the self-doubting voice of the diary writer. Thus, they gure her in either of two ways. In the rst they gure her as an Edwardianharpy intent onconvincing the world that the arts had better not exist at all, as Pound puts it so bluntly in The Serious Artist.
In the second, as is the case in Woolf s Mr. Bennett and Mrs. Brown, the :q. This will lead me, I amwell aware, to make some very sweeping and some very vague assertions. For the question is an extremely difcult one.
Think how little we know about character think how little we know about art. Yet we need to ask: in what ways are Webbs efforts to assume the professional authority of science an exact corollary to rather than the antithesis of the modernist literary project? That is, in what sense is Webb in her need to establish cultural authority in an uncertain, even hostile public sphere another modernist, not its demonized other? Paying careful attention to the professional and disciplinary anxieties fueling Pounds guration of the Webbs and the serious artist enables a very different reading of this seeming antithesis.
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We are so used to thinking of modernist writing as literature that it is easy to forget the fragility of all claims about the cultural capital of the arts when Pound, T. Hulme, Wyndham Lewis, and T. Eliot began proselytizing, in the early :q:os, on behalf of the diverse synchrony of movements that has come to be known as modernism. In saying this, I do not mean to suggest that the literary eld was stable at some earlier point in history and somehow lost this inherent integrity at the end of the nineteenth century though certainly many modernists share with late Victorians such as Matthew Arnold an intensely nostalgic view of this kind of lost paradise.
Instead, I simply want to emphasize here how literary modernists dene and delimit the literary eld through reference to what modernism is not and how modernists disciplinary and professional anxieties are revealed by insistent repetition of what it is. By disciplinary and professional anxieties I mean the set of concerns glossed by Pounds nal sentences in the opening paragraph of The Serious Artist: We are asked to dene the relation of the arts to eco- nomics, we are asked what position the arts are to hold in the ideal repub- lic.
And it is obviously the opinion of many people less objectionable than the Sidney Webbs that the arts had better not exist at all. Pounds imme- diate concern here is with Fabian Socialisms inability to conceptualize superstructural phenomena such as the arts as anything but ancillary to Beatrice Webb and the serious artist : the central operations of culture.
As noted earlier, the public myth about the Webbs sustained by if not originating among modernists such as Pound was that they were oblivious to the arts. In reality, Sidney Webbs letters are almost as full of literary references as are Karl Marxs, and Beatrice Potter Webb was both deeply conicted about the rhetorical constraints of sociological analysis and respectful of the social analysis provided in some if not all ction.
In The Serious Artist, however, the grossest of generalizations about the Webbs indifference to literary matters suits Pounds purposes. Caricaturing leftist models of culture that focus exclusively on the economic base, Pound paints the Webbs in the broadest possible terms as antipathetic to the project of broad cultural uplift he establishes as the mission of literary modernism.
Notably, the Webbs are not singled out for criticism here simply because their particular version of Fabian Socialism found no place for art in the ideal republic. Rather, they are also bludgeoned publicly because they epitomize the ethos of professionalism with which literary artists such as Pound were struggling to come to terms in the early twentieth century. To understand this second vector of signication in Pounds guration of the Webbs, we need to hear the echoes of late nineteenth-century debates about the re organization of the natural and human sciences in this :q: manifesto.
Consider, then, how Pound begins to lay out his case for the serious art and serious artists. It is obvious, Pound writes, that ethics are based on the nature of man, just as it is obvious that civics are based upon the nature of men when living together in groups. It is obvious that the good of the greatest number cannot be attained until we knowin some sort of what that good must consist.